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We will use the database, whose schema and data import commands are given here:

You can import this database by copy pasting the commands on that page.


UNION is the clause where you combine query result A and query result B that have the same schema but were produced by different queries into a single result C by taking their union. Two notes:

  • The number of columns and dataType of each column must be identical in A and B but their names can be different.
  • UNION will remove all duplicates in the union of A and B. Instead, UNION ALL preserves the duplicates.

For example, the following query returns the age of the follower of Zhang and Karissa without duplicate elimination


MATCH (u1:User)-[:Follows]->(u2:User)
WHERE = 'Zhang'
RETURN u1.age
MATCH (u3:User)-[:Follows]->(u4:User)
WHERE = 'Karissa'
RETURN u3.age;


| u1.age |
| 30     |
| 40     |
| 30     |

View example in Colab.

If you changed UNION ALL to UNION in the above query, one of the 30’s in the output would be removed. So the result would be:

| 30 |
| 40 |